FedInvent creates lists of the important moving parts of the federal innovation ecosphere. It's complex. We keep the lists simple.

America Leans Digital

THE UNITED STATES INNOVATION AND COMPETITION ACT (S.1260) identified ten science and technology priorities to maintain US global innovation leadership. This list expands on the high priority industries for maintaining US competitiveness and American technical leadership in five Industries of the Future (IotF): artificial intelligence, advanced manufacturing, quantum information science, 5G/advanced wireless technology, and biotechnology. The new list adds climate change technologies — natural and anthropogenic disaster prevention or mitigation; and energy technology; data storage including distributed ledger technology (also known as blockchain); and advanced materials.

US taxpayer funded R&D is dependent on digital critical infrastructure and the cybersecurity that goes with it.

  1. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, autonomy, and related advances
  2. High-performance computing, semiconductors, and advanced computer hardware and software
  3. Quantum information science and technology
  4. Robotics, automation, and advanced manufacturing
  5. Natural and anthropogenic disaster prevention or mitigation
  6. Advanced communications technology and immersive technology
  7. Biotechnology, medical technology, genomics, and synthetic biology
  8. Data storage, data management, distributed ledger technologies, and cybersecurity, including biometrics
  9. Advanced energy, industrial efficiency technologies including batteries, and advanced nuclear technologies including for the purposes of electric generation
  10. Advanced materials science, including composites and 2D materials
The technologies in bold align with China's seven Frontier Technologies — the Chinese Communist Party's R&D priorities.

China plans to boost research into seven "frontier technologies" to compete with the US for competitive advantage and scientific and technical supremacy in innovation. (The question is whether the Chinese intend to innovate themselves or just continue appropriating US and global intellectual property but we digress.)

The technologies in bold align with the US's ten scientific and technical priorities.
  1. Artificial intelligence
  2. Quantum computing (quantum information)
  3. Integrated circuits or semiconductors
  4. Brain Science
  5. Genomics and biotechnology
  6. Clinical medicine and health
  7. Deep space, deep earth, deep sea and polar research

Both the US and the EU are considerng a new Carbon Border Tax that will charge tariffs on imports of products that are large producers of GHG in the manufacturing process. Among the areas that will be impacted are cement production, cruise ships, electric power generation which accounts for 25% of US GHG emissions, iron and aluminum, and fertilizer production. It is expected that new innovations will be needed to enable these industries to avoid these new tariffs if they are enacted.

  1. CHINA
  4. INDIA
  6. JAPAN
  9. IRAN
  10. CANADA

Source: New York Times, July 14, 2021.

Lithium batteries are the enabling technology for consumer electronics, stored energy, and electric vehicles. Here is a summary of the types and their uses.

Chemistry Lithium
Cobalt Oxide
Manganese Oxide
Lithiium NIckel
Manganese Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Iron
Nickel Cobalt
Aluminum Oxide
Short Form Li-cobalt Li-manganese NMC Li-phosphate Li-aluminum Li-titanate
Abbreviation LiCoC2 (LCO) LiMn2O4 (LMO) LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) LiFePo4 (LFP) LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA) Li2TiO3 (LTO)
Comments High energy, limited power. Market share in decline High power, less capacity; safer than Li-cobalt; often mixed with NMC to improve performance High capacity and high power Flat discharge voltage, high power low capacity, and safe; elevated self-discharge Highest capacity with moderate power. Similar to Li-cobalt Long life, fast charge, wide temperature range and very safe. Low capacity, expensive
Common Uses Mobile consumer devices, such as laptops, smartphones, and digital cameras Medical devices,power tools, consumer devices, electric vehicles Electric vehicle powertrains, cordless power tools, electrical grid storage Stored energy for mission-critical environments. Also used in electric vehicles Electric vehicles Electric grid storage

Source: Vertiv

Here is a list of the agencies that make up the US Intelligence Community called, "The IC."

Intel Agency Mission
Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance The Air Force’s intelligence branch, organized into the 25th Air Force, uses airplanes, drones and satellites to identify hideouts, bunkers, mobile launchers and weapons caches. It is also responsible for code-breaking activities within the Air Force. All that surveillance takes up a lot of digital space – in 2013, one wing alone received 20 terabytes of data daily, processed 460,000 hours of video and disseminated 2.6 million images.
Army — Military Intelligence Corps (MIC) The Army’s intelligence branch intercepts electronic communications and provides maps, ground imagery and information on foreign forces to assist fighters in the battlefield.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) CIA is the most recognized intelligence agency. Widely referred to as "The Customer Is Annoymous" or "The Company" inside the Beltway.
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) The Pentagon’s top spy agency, the DIA is the primary entity responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence on foreign militaries, with support from the intelligence offices of all the military branches. The DIA shares this information with military leaders, fighters and defense policy makers in order to “prevent and decisively win wars,” according to its mission statement.
Department of Energy — Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (OICI) Even the Department of Energy has an intelligence office. It traces its origin to the Manhattan Project, when the Atomic Energy Commission was charged with analyzing the Soviet Union’s atomic weapons program. Today the office’s role is to provide technical intelligence on foreign nuclear weapons, energy security, science and technology, and nuclear energy, safety and waste.
Department of Homeland Security — Office of Intelligence and Analysis The scope of “homeland security” includes emergency preparedness, border control, transportation security and biodefense (Ebola and SARS, for example), among other issues. The Office of Intelligence and Analysis is charged with gathering intelligence in these areas and sharing it with state, local, tribal, territorial and private sector partners through a network of “fusion centers.”
Department of State — Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) INR is a bureau of the Department of State and a member of the Intelligence Community (IC). The Bureau of Intelligence and Research's (INR) primary mission is to harness intelligence to serve U.S. diplomacy.
Department of the Treasury — Office of Intelligence and Analysis Intelligence gathering at the Treasury dates back to its beginning, when Secretary Alexander Hamilton sent a tax official in disguise to investigate the “whiskey rebellion” underway in western Pennsylvania. Today the Office of Intelligence and Analysis sits within the Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence, which works to prevent sanctioned countries, money launderers, terrorists, drug kingpins and purveyors of weapons of mass destruction from parking or moving their money through the U.S. financial system.
Drug Enforcement Administration — Office of National Security Intelligence The DEA is the government’s watch guard for drugs that are illegally manufactured, distributed or dispensed. It is also responsible for the seizure and forfeiture of assets connected with illicit drug trafficking. The Office of National Security Intelligence assists law enforcement with investigations and prosecutions. Most recently it has focused on the threat posed by a surge in heroin and counterfeit prescription pills containing fentanyl.
Federal Bureau of Investigation — Intelligence Branch (IB) The FBI has both law enforcement and intelligence functions. On the intelligence side, it aims to protect the U.S. against terrorism, cyberattacks and foreign intelligence operations and espionage. It maintains the government’s terrorist watch list and has been involved in the interrogation of “high-value” detainees, sometimes clashing with the CIA.
Homeland Security — Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) The Office of Intelligence & Analysis (I&A) is a unique member of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). I&A is the only IC element statutorily charged with delivering intelligence to our State, Local, Tribal and Territorial (SLTT) and private sector partners, and developing intelligence from those partners for the Department and the IC.
Homeland Security — Coast Guard Intelligence (CGI) The Coast Guard, part of the military and the Department of Homeland Security, protects and defends more than 100,000 miles of coastline and inland waterways. On an average day, the Coast Guard conducts 45 search-and-rescue cases, seizes 874 pounds of cocaine, interdicts 17 migrants and helps move $8.7 billion worth of goods, according to its website. Its intelligence office helps with criminal investigations and provides other national agencies with intelligence from domestic and foreign ports, coastal waters and offshore.
Marine Corps Intelligence (MCI) The Marine Corps’ intelligence officers create military maps, intercept and translate radio and electronic signals, analyze images collected from sensors and carry out counterintelligence.
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Supporting the Defense Department, this agency is the principal provider of geospatial intelligence – analysis and information about Earth’s natural and man-made features and geo-tagged activities. This “GEOINT” is used for combat, humanitarian and disaster relief, border and transportation security and security planning for special events. One of the agency’s claims to fame is pinpointing the Abbottabad, Pakistan, compound where Osama bin Laden was hiding; another is operating the reference system for GPS.
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) The NRO was a secret agency for 31 years, until its existence was declassified in 1992. The office designs, builds and operates the nation’s reconnaissance satellites, providing the Pentagon, CIA and others precision navigation, early warning of missile launches and near real-time imagery to support anti-terrorism activities. On the civilian side, the satellites help survey damage from natural disasters and support environmental research.
National Security Agency (NSA) /Central Security Service (CSS) NSA is the largest and perhaps most technologically sophisticated of all the intelligence agencies. It focuses on signals intelligence — monitoring, collecting and processing communications and other electronic information — and cracking secret codes.
Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) The Navy’s intelligence branch keeps tabs on foreign scientific and technological research, analyzes the structure, tactics and readiness of foreign naval forces, and tracks merchant shipping to identify illicit activity.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence Created by Congress in response to the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, the office coordinates intelligence collection and sharing among U.S. intelligence agencies. The director is the head of the intelligence community and the principal advisor to the president, National Security Council and Homeland Security Council on intelligence matters related to national security.
Sixteenth Air Force (16 AF) (USAF ISR Enterprise) Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). Sixteenth Air Force (Air Forces Cyber) operates globally across nine wings and one center to provide capabilities to persistently engage with the adversary of today and protect the future of our nation. Air Force’s Information Warfare Numbered Air Force, the 16th integrates multisource intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, cyber warfare, electronic warfare, and information operations capabilities across the conflict continuum to ensure that our Air Force is fast, lethal and fully integrated in both competition and in war.
Space Delta 7 (DEL 7) (USSF ISR Enterprise) Space Delta 7 is the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance delta of the United States Space Force. The delta provides actionable and time sensitive intelligence for space domain operations including detection, characterization and targeting of adversary space capabilities.
Treasury — Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI) Terrorism and Financial Intelligence develops and implements U.S. government strategies to combat terrorist financing domestically and internationally, and develops and implements the National Money Laundering Strategy as well as other policies and programs to fight financial crimes.

Patent Numbers By Year

The following table displays the calendar year along with the first corresponding document number issued in each year for selected patent document types (utility, design, plant, and reissue patents and statutory invention registrations)

This list provides a quick way to figure out how old patent is if you don't have access to the front page of the patent which has the exact date.

The current patent numbering system began with a patent issued on July 13, 1836. Prior to that date, 9,957 patents had been issued. Defensive Publications (T) and Improvement patents (AI) are not included in this table.
Reissue patents were not separately numbered until 1838.
The last Statutory Invention Registration (SIR) granted in 2011 is dated December 6, 2011 (H002265).

Issue Year Utility Design Plant Reissue Statutory Invention
2021 10524403 D871717 PP31316 RE47796 -
2020 10524402 D871716 PP31315 RE47795 -
2019 10165721 D836880 PP30040 RE47184 -
2018 9854721 D806350 PP28831 RE46654 H002294
2017 9532496 D775450 PP27520 RE46259 -
2016 9226437 D746541 PP26285 RE45832 -
2015 8925112 D720516 PP25207 RE45317 N/A
2014 8621662 D696836 PP24135 RE44689 H002288
2013 8341762 D673346 PP23288 RE43884 H002274
2012 8087094 D651376 PP22428 RE43053 H002266
2011 7861317 D629996 PP21604 RE42020 H002251
2010 7640598 D607176 PP20622 RE41067 H002234
2009 7472428 D584026 PP19613 RE40613 H002228
2008 7313829 D558426 PP18373 RE39964 H002208
2007 7155746 D534331 PP17326 RE39452 H002177
2006 6981282 D513356 PP16176 RE38928 H002137
2005 6836899 D500396 PP15460 RE38680 H002113
2004 6671884 D484671 PP14441 RE38377 H002093
2003 6502244 D468073 PP13447 RE37954 H002057
2002 6334220 D452599 PP12314 RE37489 H002008
2001 6167569 D435713 PP11728 RE37006 H001930
2000 6009555 D418273 PP11169 RE36479 H001826
1999 5855021 D403485 PP10743 RE36021 H001766
1998 5704062 D388585 PP10172 RE35708 H001701
1997 5590420 D377107 PP09776 RE35418 H001623
1996 5479658 D365671 PP09413 RE35136 H001512
1995 5377359 D353932 PP09026 RE34814 H001389
1994 5274846 D342818 PP08527 RE34493 H001270
1993 5175886 D332170 PP08082 RE34154 H001124
1992 5077836 D322878 PP07761 RE33786 H001007
1991 4980927 D313301 PP07408 RE33510 H000863
1990 4890335 D305275 PP07089 RE33138 H000720
1989 4794652 D299180 PP06501 RE32814 H000563
1988 4716594 D293500 PP06075 RE32569 H000396
1987 4633526 D287540 PP05846 RE32323 H000182
1986 4562596 D282020 PP05622 RE32061 H000007
1985 4490855 D276949 PP05380 RE31783 H000001
1984 4423523 D272009 PP05168 RE31479
1983 4366579 D267440 PP04970 RE31115
1982 4308622 D262495 PP04796 RE30840
1981 4242757 D257746 PP04612 RE30469
1980 4180867 D253796 PP04491 RE30183
1979 4131952 D250676 PP04360 RE29872
1978 4065812 D246811 PP04174 RE29506
1977 4000520 D242881 PP04001 RE29095
1976 3930271 D238315 PP03824 RE28671
1975 3858241 D234033 PP03674 RE28292
1974 3781914 D229729 PP03413 RE27856
1973 3707729 D225695 PP03281 RE27540
1972 3631539 D222793 PP03063 RE27264
1971 3551909 D219637 PP03011 RE27018
1970 3487470 D216419 PP02959 RE26749
1969 3419907 D213084 PP02856 RE26515
1968 3360800 D209732 PP02784 RE26328
1967 3295143 D206567 PP02699 RE26132
1966 3226729 D203379 PP02585 RE25953
1965 3163865 D199955 PP02465 RE25707
1964 3116487 D197269 PP02337 RE25507
1963 3070801 D194304 PP02208 RE25309
1962 3015103 D192004 PP02117 RE25107
1961 2966681 D189516 PP02009 RE24918
1960 2919443 D186973 PP01893 RE24761
1959 2866973 D184204 PP01792 RE24584
1958 2818567 D181829 PP01672 RE24413
1957 2775762 D179467 PP01543 RE24263
1956 2728913 D176490 PP01442 RE24105
1955 2698434 D173777 PP01339 RE23918
1954 2664562 D171241 PP01238 RE23763
1953 2624046 D168527 PP01160 RE23612
1952 2580379 D165568 PP01059 RE23449
1951 2536016 D161404 PP01001 RE23315
1950 2492944 D156686 PP00911 RE23186
1949 2457797 D152235 PP00818 RE23068
1948 2433824 D148267 PP00774 RE22957
1947 2413675 D146165 PP00722 RE22827
1946 2391856 D143386 PP00666 RE22706
1945 2366154 D139862 PP00649 RE22585
1944 2338081 D136946 PP00611 RE22415
1943 2307007 D134717 PP00564 RE22242
1942 2268540 D130989 PP00499 RE21992
1941 2227418 D124503 PP00437 RE21683
1940 2185170 D118358 PP00352 RE21311
1939 2142080 D112765 PP00307 RE20959
1938 2104004 D107738 PP00266 RE20610
1937 2066309 D102601 PP00211 RE20226
1936 2026516 D098045 PP00162 RE19804
1935 1985878 D094179 PP00117 RE19409
1934 1941449 D091258 PP00085 RE19038
1933 1892663 D088847 PP00052 RE18705
1932 1839190 D085903 PP00006 RE18312
1931 1787424 D082966 PP00001 RE17917
1930 1742181 D080254 RE17550
1929 1696897 D077347 RE17176
1928 1654521 D074159 RE16841
1927 1612700 D071772 RE16515
1926 1568040 D069170 RE16240
1925 1521590 D066346 RE15974
1924 1478996 D063675 RE15739
1923 1440362 D061748 RE15513
1922 1401948 D060121 RE15257
1921 1364063 D056844 RE15018
1920 1326899 D054359 RE14785
1919 1290027 D052836 RE14582
1918 1251458 D051629 RE14417
1917 1210389 D050117 RE14238
1916 1166419 D048358 RE14040
1915 1123212 D046813 RE13858
1914 1083267 D045098 RE13668
1913 1049326 D043415 RE13504
1912 1013095 D042073 RE13346
1911 980178 D041063 RE13189
1910 945010 D040424 RE13066
1909 908436 D039737 RE12906
1908 875679 D038980 RE12738
1907 839799 D038391 RE12587
1906 808618 D037766 RE12428
1905 778834 D037280 RE12299
1904 748567 D036723 RE12189
1903 717521 D036187 RE12070
1902 690385 D035547 RE11960
1901 664827 D033813 RE11879
1900 640167 D032055 RE11798
1899 616871 D029916 RE11706
1898 596467 D028113 RE11646
1897 574369 D026482 RE11581
1896 552502 D025037 RE11520
1895 531619 D023922 RE11461
1894 511744 D022994 RE11397
1893 488976 D022092 RE11298
1892 466315 D021275 RE11217
1891 443987 D020439 RE11137
1890 418665 D019553 RE11053
1889 395305 D018830 RE10978
1888 375720 D017995 RE10892
1887 355291 D017046 RE10793
1886 333494 D016451 RE10677
1885 310163 D015678 RE10548
1884 291016 D014528 RE10432
1883 269820 D013508 RE10265
1882 251685 D012647 RE09994
1881 236137 D012082 RE09523
1880 223211 D011567 RE09017
1879 211078 D010975 RE08529
1878 198733 D010385 RE08020
1877 185813 D009686 RE07452
1876 171641 D008884 RE06831
1875 158350 D007969 RE06200
1874 146120 D007083 RE05717
1873 134504 D006336 RE05216
1872 122304 D005452 RE04687
1871 110617 D004547 RE04223
1870 98460 D003810 RE03784
1869 85503 D003304 RE03250
1868 72959 D002858 RE02830
1867 60658 D002533 RE02430
1866 51784 D002239 RE02140
1865 45685 D002018 RE01844
1864 41047 D001879 RE01596
1863 37266 D001703 RE01369
1862 34045 D001508 RE01253
1861 31005 D001366 RE01106
1860 26642 D001183 RE00874
1859 22477 D001075 RE00643
1858 19010 D000973 RE00517
1857 16324 D000860 RE00420
1856 14009 D000753 RE00337
1855 12117 D000683 RE00286
1854 10358 D000626 RE00258
1853 9512 D000540 RE00229
1852 8622 D000431 RE00209
1851 7865 D000341 RE00184
1850 6981 D000258 RE00158
1849 5993 D000209 RE00128
1848 5409 D000163 RE00105
1847 4914 D000103 RE00091
1846 4348 D000044 RE00078
1845 3873 D000027 RE00067
1844 3395 D000015 RE00060
1843 2901 D000001 RE00049
1842 2413 RE00036
1841 1923 RE00030
1840 1465 RE00020
1839 1061 RE00007
1838 546 RE00001
1837 110
1836 1

Contemporary Application Series Numbers

Series Codes

Patent Application Numbers start with a two digit series number and a six digit serial number. Series numbers increase when the six digit serial number hits 999999. (In the case of older pre-2001 patents where the series number begins with 1-9 the leading 0 is missing.)

Special Series Numbers

Provisional patent applications begin with 60, 61, or 62. The format for this field is 60, 61 or 62/###,###. You only can find provisional patent application numbers when an application is published or if a patent is granted and the inventor uses the filing date of the provisional patent application as the priority date for the patent. Starting June 8, 1995, USPTO started using the "60" designation for provisional patent applications.

Starting October 1, 1992, design patent applications are assigned separate application serial numbers which are associated with newly established application series codes, beginning with 29. Design patents are examined in Tech Center 2900.

Take Me To The Source
Series Number Used From Until
2 Earlier than January 1, 1948  
3 January 1, 1948 December 31, 1959
4 January. 1, 1960 December 31, 1969
5 January 1, 1970 December 31, 1978
6 January 1, 1979 December 31, 1986
7 January 1, 1987 January 21, 1993
8 January 22, 1993 January 21, 1997
9 January 21, 1998 October 23, 2001
10 October 24, 2001 December 1, 2004
11 December 1, 2004 December 5, 2007
12 December 6, 2007 December 17, 2010
13 December 17, 2010 August 2013
14 August 2013 July 2016
15 January 2016
June 2018
16 June 2018 Present
29 Design Application
October 1992
60, 61, 62 Provisional Patent Applications
Started June 1995

Standardized Bibliographic Data

What Do Those Little Numbers On The Front Page of a Patent PDF Mean?

The bibliographic data on the front page of a patent document is identified by the use of INID codes in parentheses, brackets or circles. INID is an acronym for Internationally agreed Numbers for the Identification of (bibliographic) Data. INID codes are defined under WIPO Standard ST.9.

The patent is the seminal Google Page Rank patent covering Larry Page's invention while he was at Stanford and subsequently licensed to start Google. The work was funded by National Science Foundation.

The table below is a sample of the codes found on US patents.

Front page of US patent 6285999, the seminal Stanford patent that led to Google.

INID Codes and Descriptions
Take Me To The WIPO Source
Code Description
10 Document number — The prefix US indicates that this is a U.S. patent. The B1 code indicates that this patent does not have a previously published application. "Utility Patent Grant (no pre-grant publication) issued on or after January 2, 2001."
12 Document type (Patent)
21 Application number
22 Date of application
45 Date of patent
51 IPC classification
52 National classifications. For US patents these are the Cooperative Patent Classification system symbol assigned to the patent. Older patent images reflect the classifications at the time the patent was granted. The full text versions of the patent are updateable so they reflect the most recent classifications for the patent. The main classification, G06F 16/951, is the code for Indexing; Web crawling techniques.
54 Title of the invention: Limited to 500 characters or less.
56 References: U.S. and foreign patent documents and other publications cited as related prior art by the inventor and patent examiner.
57 Abstract — brief, non-technical description of the invention.
58 Field of search: Classifications consulted by the patent examiner during the prior art search.
60 Number and date of provisional application
63 Number and date of the continuation application
65 Number and date of previously published application
71 Applicant — The person, company or organization that filed the application.
72 Inventors
73 Assignee — Owner at the time the patent issued. The assignee can be a person, company or organization.
74 Patent attorney, agent or firm: Patent professional hired by the inventor to prosecute the application.
Other Data Primary Examiner — the name of the patent office employee who examined the application. If a newer patent examiner worked on the patent prosecution the data will include the name of an Assistant Examiner.
(*) Term adjustment Additional days added to the term of the patent to make up for processing delays. The term of the patent at the right has been adjusted by 0 days.


Kind Codes include a letter, and in many cases a number, used to distinguish the kind of patent document (e.g., publication of an application for a utility patent (patent application publication), patent, plant patent application publication, plant patent, or design patent) and the level of publication (e.g., first publication, second publication, or corrected publication).

An image of the top of the patent with the kind codes identified.

The kind code is another useful tool to help you understand what's going on with a patent. An B2 Kind Code on a US patent means that the patent was previously published as a patent application. A B1 means it wasn't previously published as a patent application. It's a quick way to see if a patent was published without having to find the application number and dig around. You can tell the difference between utility patents which have Kind Codes that start with "B" and Design patents that start with "S".

Kind Codes appear on the upper right hand corner of the "printed" version of a patent. It is the two character value immediately to the right of the patent number. The Kind Code isn't on the full text version of the patents or the applications. If you want to know the Kind Code you need to look at the image version of the patents.

Here is a list of the most common Kind Codes found on taxpayer funded patents. Go to the Take Me To The Source Button to get the full list.

Take Me To The Source
USPTO Kind Codes Used on Documents Published Beginning January 2, 2001
Kind Code Kind of Document Notes
A1 Patent Application Publication Pre-grant publication available March 2001
A2 Patent Application Publication (Republication) Pre-grant publication available March 2001
A9 Patent Application Publication (Corrected Publication) Pre-grant publication available March 2001
B1 Patent No previously published pre-grant publication
B2 Patent Having a previously published pre-grant publication and available March 2001
Reexamination Certificate Previously used codes B1 and B2 are now used for granted Patents
E Reissue Patent No change
P1 Plant Patent Application Publication Pre-grant publication available March 2001
P2 Plant Patent No previously published pre-grant publication
P3 Plant Patent Having a previously published pre-grant publication and available March 2001
P4 Plant Patent Application Publication (Republication) Pre-grant publication available after March 2001
Plant Patent Application Publication (Corrected Publication) Pre-grant publication available March 2001
S Design Patent No change


Average filing date of applications receiving a First Office Action in the last three months at September 20, 2021. This gives you insight into the age of the applications actively being prosecuted at the USPTO. The tables are organized by Group Art Unit (GAU).

1610 Organic Compounds: Bio-affecting, Body Treating, Drug Delivery, Steroids,
Herbicides, Pesticides, Cosmetics, and Drugs
1620 Organic Chemistry 10/28/15
1630 Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, Nucleic Acids, Recombinant DNA and RNA,
Gene Regulation, Nucleic Acid Amplification, Animals and Plants,
Combinatorial/ Computational Chemistry
1640 Immunology, Receptor/Ligands, Cytokines Recombinant Hormones, and Molecular Biology 5/13/15
1650 Fermentation, Microbiology, Isolated and Recombinant Proteins/Enzymes 4/25/15
1660 Plants 8/10/15
1670 Mystery Art Unit — The Art Unit appears in the Patent Gazette
but not on the Art Unit list.
TOTAL All 1600 Art Units 7/16/15
1710 Coating, Etching, Cleaning, Single Crystal Growth 1/30/15
1720 Fuel Cells, Battery, Flammable Gas, Solar Cells, Liquid Crystal Compositions 1/9/15
1730 Metallurgy, Metal Working, Inorganic Chemistry, Catalyst,
Electrophotography, Photolithography
1740 Tires, Adhesive Bonding, Glass/Paper making, Plastics Shaping & Molding 11/21/14
1750 Mystery Art Unit — The Art Unit appears in the Patent Gazette
but not on the Art Unit list.
1760 Organic Chemistry, Polymers, Compositions 3/11/15
1770 Chemical Apparatus, Separation and Purification,
Liquid and Gas Contact Apparatus
1780 Miscellaneous Articles, Stock Material 12/31/14
1790 Food, Analytical Chemistry, Sterilization, Biochemistry, Electrochemistry 12/28/14
TOTAL All Art Units 1/15/15
2110 Computer Error Control, Reliability, & Control Systems 2/2/15
2120 AI & Simulation/Modeling 4/1/14
2130 Memory Access and Control 3/23/15
2140 Graphical User Interface and Document Processing 11/21/14
2150 Data Bases & File Management 7/19/14
2160 Data Bases & File Management 7/25/14
2170 Graphical User Interface and Document Processing 1/6/15
2180 Computer Architecture and I/O 4/19/15
2190 Interprocess Communication and Software Development 3/11/15
TOTAL All Art Units 12/15/14
2410 Multiplex and VoIP 4/16/15
2420 Cable and Television 7/4/15
2430 Cryptography and Security 1/27/15
2440 Computer Networks 11/18/14
2450 Computer Networks 12/3/14
2460 Multiplex and VoIP 6/1/15
2470 Multiplex and VoIP 5/16/15
2480 Recording and Compression 4/19/15
2490 Cryptography and Security 2/8/15
TOTAL All Art Units 3/17/15
Tech Center 2600 — COMMUNICATIONS
2610 Computer Graphic Processing, 3D Animation, Display Color Attribute, Object Processing,
Hardware and Memory
2620 Selective Visual Display Systems 5/10/15
2630 Digital and Optical Communications 10/28/15
2640 Telecommunications: Analog Radio Telephone; Satellite and Power Control;
Transceivers, Measuring and Testing;Bluetooth; Receivers and Transmitters;
Equipment Details
2650 Videophones and Telephonic Communications; Audio Signals; Digital Audio
Data Processing; Linguistics, Speech Processing and Audio Compression
2660 Digital Cameras; Image Analysis; Applications; pattern Recognition; Color and Compression;
Enhancement and Transformation
2670 Facsimile; Printer; Color; halftone; Scanner; Computer Graphic Processing; 3-D Animation; Display Color; Attributes; Object Processing; Hardware and Memory 9/21/2015
2680 Telemetry and Code Generation; Vehicles and System Alarms; Selective Communication;
Dynamic Storage Systems; Mechanical parts of Disk Drives; Signal Processing and
Control Processing in Disk Drives
2690 Selective Visual Display Systems 6/16/15
TOTAL All Art Units 8/4/15
2810 Semiconductors/Memory 9/3/15
2820 Semiconductors/Memory 9/3/15
2830 Electrical Circuits and Systems 5/23/15
2840 Electrical Circuits and Systems 8/16/15
2850 Printing/Measuring and Testing 5/7/15
2860 Printing/Measuring and Testing 12/3/14
2870 Optics 6/7/15
2880 Optics 8/7/15
2890 Semiconductors/Memory 8/28/15
TOTAL All Art Units 6/25/15
Tech Center 2900 — DESIGN
2910 Design 6/10/15
2920 Design 6/7/15
TOTAL All Art Units 6/10/15
3610 Surface Transportation 4/22/15
3620 Business Methods — Incentive Programs, Coupons; Operations Research; Electronic Shopping; Health Care; Point of Sale, Inventory, Accounting;
Cost/Price, Reservations, Shipping and Transportation; Business Processing
3630 Static Structures, Supports and Furniture 6/28/15
3640 Aeronautics, Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping, Vermin Destroying,
Plant and Animal Husbandry, Weaponry, Nuclear Systems, and License and Review
3650 Material and Article Handling 4/7/15
3660 Computerized Vehicle Controls and Navigation, Radio Wave,
Optical and Acoustic Wave Communication, Robotics, and Nuclear Systems
3670 Wells, Earth Boring/Moving/Working, Excavating, Mining,
Harvesters, Bridges, Roads, Petroleum, Closures, Connections, and Hardware
3680 Business Methods — Incentive Programs, Coupons; Electronic Shopping;
Business Cryptography, Voting; Health Care; Point of Sale, Inventory, Accounting; Business Processing, Electronic Negotiation
3690 Business Methods — Finance/Banking/ Insurance 6/10/14
TOTAL All Art Units 12/31/14
3710 Amusement and Education Devices 5/1/15
3720 Manufacturing Devices & Processes, Machine Tools & Hand Tools Group Art Units 11/15/14
3730 Sheet Container Making, Package Making, Receptacles, Shoes,
Apparel, and Tool Driving or Impacting
3740 Thermal & Combustion Technology, Motive & Fluid Power Systems 10/9/14
3750 Fluid Handling and Dispensing 3/11/15
3760 Refrigeration, Vaporization, Ventilation, and Combustion 9/3/14
3770 Medical & Surgical Instruments, Treatment Devices, Surgery and Surgical Supplies 12/9/14
3780 Body Treatment, Kinestherapy, and Exercising 8/19/14
3790 Medical Instruments, Diagnostic Equipment, and Treatment Devices 9/15/14
TOTAL All Art Units 11/15/14


The federal innovation ecosphere is vast. From the official names and acronyms for the government agencies that fund R&D to the codes on the contract and grant numbers that provide the money to fund the scientists and engineers solving problems, to patent numbers and classification symbols there are a lot of lists.

FedInvent builds them to do our work. This list of lists and the data they are composed of will help you use the work of The FedInvent Project.

The Source of the Lists

We've assembled these list from open data resources including open data; reports available on government websites; analysis performed by Wayfinder Digital; and information provided by intellectual property experts and innovation economists. We do our best to provide accurate sources and where possible a link back to the publicly available source data.

Expand the panels below to select a list or use the floating menu on the sidebar to find what you are looking for. We added a Take Me To The Source when the list came from a publicly available source.

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